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Breeds of Horses Tips

Read these 139 Breeds of Horses Tips tips to make your life smarter, better, faster and wiser. Each tip is approved by our Editors and created by expert writers so great we call them Gurus. LifeTips is the place to go when you need to know about Horse tips and hundreds of other topics.

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Definition of the Breeding Records of the DWB horse?

The Dutch Warmblood Horse

Even today, the Dutch horses continue to be influenced by imported blood, but the special qualities (temperament, adaptability and soundness) which have made the Dutch Warmblood horse unique, continue to be treasured and cultivated. Although the word "breed" denotes to most English speaking horsemen a closed studbook (like that of the Arabians and Thoroughbreds), it has a different connotation in the European Warmblood breeding community. Breed refers to the "breeding area" as much as to the strict purity of the bloodlines. Each breeding area sets its own breeding goals and style of administration which, despite shared background and bloodlines, gives specific qualities and characteristics to its horses.

   
the effect war had on the Oldenburg Breeding Programs

The Oldenburg

The war with Denmark and the difficult times during the French Revolution made it difficult for Graf Anton Gunther to continue his efforts at refinement of the Oldenburg horse. Government sponsored breeding entered a brief hiatus, which ended in 1820.

From 1820 to 1897, three important events took place which began the movement of Oldenburg breeding to its present state of scientific management. Any one of these events would have been significant in itself. Combined, they represented a watershed in the development of the breed.

During the year 1820, a law was enacted which forbade the use of any but government-approved stallions in a breeding program. The first of the stallion testings was held on June 30th of that year.

   
How did the Friesian Horse originate?

The Friesian Horse-Origin

Big, black and charismatic -- is one of the world's oldest breeds. For many centuries the Friesian was relatively isolated in a small area in the northwestern Netherlands. As long ago as the early middle ages he was called by the name of the area from which he came Friesland. He carried knights in the Crusades and was a war horse in medieval times.

   
How is the Hackney Pony movement to appear while In Harness?

The Hackney Pony Movement

The action of a pony differs from that of a horse in being more brisk but other wise the main features are similar.

   
How did the Friesian Horse come to America?

The Friesian Horse-Coming To America

About 25 years ago this virtually unknown, but unforgettable black horse arrived in North America. His numbers were small, but people who saw him were captivated by his unique and striking appearance. Now, only 25 years after his importation to America, the Friesian has achieved tremendous popularity and almost universal breed recognition among horse lovers. Because of the Friesians' great popular appeal the horses have quickly found their way into a variety of disciplines roles they can fill because versatility is the breed's heritage.

   
Is the action of the Hackney characteristic?

The Hackney Movement

These creatures never fail to excite a show ring crowd with their explosive motion, brilliant carriage and spunky manner. Their leg action at the trot is so exaggerated as to give the horse/pony an air of suspended motion, with the front foot and rear pastern often touching the upper body of the horse/pony. The gait is performed with piston-like quickness, suspending for a moment at the highest point.

   
what are the recognized coat colorings accepted by the Appaloosa Horse

Appaloosa Horse - Coat Colors

Base Coat Colors - The Appaloosa Horse Club recognizes the following thirteen base colors:

Bay -Dark Bay-Dark Brown-Black-White-Buckskin-Chestnut-Dun-Gray-Grulla-Palomino-Red Roan-Bay Roan-Blue Roan

It is not always easy to predict the color a grown horse will be from the shade it appears to have as a foal. Most foals are born with lighter colored coats than they will have when they shed their baby hair, with the exception of gray horses, which are born dark and progressively become lighter. Most foals will start to lose fuzzy baby hair around their eyes, nostrils and at the base of the tail fist, followed by the legs. Look for smooth hair in these areas - the color of this hair will usually indicate the foal's ermanent color. If the foal coat on the legs is replaced by chestnut hair and the mane and tail are not black, the foal will most likely be a chestnut. If the foal coat is replaced by black hair on the legs, expect a bay. Most often, a black horse is born mousy gray.

   
definition of the Driving DWB horse in Europe?

The Dutch Warmblood Horse

Today in Holland there are three distinct types of horses bred.

In addition, there is the “Tuigpaardtype” or Show Driving Type - an extravagant, stylish, high stepping carriage horse which is shown rather like the American Fine Harness horse. These horses have mostly Gelderlander blood, with an infusion of Hackney.

   
Where did the Belgian horse come from?

The Belgian Horse - Origin

The Belgian, as the name implies, is native to the country of Belgium. This little country is blessed with fertile soil and abundant rainfall providing the thrifty farmers of Belgium with the excellent pastures and the hay and grain necessary to develop a heavy, powerful breed of horses.

   
How do I know if my horse´s eye color is acceptable for a Palomino?

Palomino Horse - Eye Color

106. Iris of Eyes. The eyes must be the same color and have black, brown, or hazel irises.

A. A horse with blue, glass or partial blue eyes is eligible for registration if it is reported on the recognized breed association's registration certificate or is an acceptable characteristic in a recognized breed association.

B. A horse with unknown bloodline may have blue, glass or partial blue eyes if it is a gelding or spayed mare.

   
How do I contact the USA Registry of Hanoverians?

USA Contact for Hanoverians

Information and photographs provided by The American Hanoverian Society, 4067 Iron Works Parkway, Suite 1, Lexington, KY 40511. Phone 606/255-4141 Fax 606/255-8467 e-mail: ahsoffice@aol.com

   
Where did the Hanoverian originate?

Origin of the Hanoverian

Hanoverian horses get their name from the particular German area where they originated. The area used to be the kingdom of Hanover, but became the state of Lower Saxony. The Elector of Hanover was Gorge Louis, who became the British King George II. He never relinquished his German land when he took the British throne. In 1735, he founded a stud farm which crossed Holsteiner warmbloods with Thoroughbreds.

The breed faced extinction after the Napoleanic Wars. There were only 30 stallions left in 1816, according to The Encyclopedia of Horses and Ponies (Paragon; 2004.) Thoroughbreds were imported from England to save the breed. The resulting foals were in high demand. By 1888, the first Hanoverian Stud Book was published.

The modern Hanoverian looks different from early Hanoverians bred in the 1800s. After World War II, demand for horses dropped. The heavier, more muscled Hanoverian used for the military and under harness was crossed with specially selected Thoroughbreds, producing the sleek yet strong Hanoverian horse. The goal was to create the ultimate riding horse. Even today, the American Hanoverian Association and the German Hanoverian Verband accept Thoroughbreds or individuals of other breeds into the Hanoverian studbook, provided the mare or stallion passes strict inspections.

   
how did the Swedish Warmblood Registry begin?

The Swedish Warmblood-Registry Establishment

Due to differences in requirements between the two largest users of horses in Sweden, the army and farmers, the breeding program was divided. Importations were made of stallions of Throughbred, Anglo-Norman, Hanoverian and Trakehner breeds to improve the horses used by the military . In order to direct the breeding efforts and to consolidate the different breeds the Swedish government began an examination system in 1874. This resulted in several excellent saddle breeds including the Swedish Warmblood.

The Swedish Warmblood Association (SWA) was formed in 1928 by breeders, encouraged by the army, to promote the development of uniform mares of high standard. The army stopped using horses in the 1970's and the breeding program has since been fully in the hands of the SWA.

   
what is currently more popular, the Pony or the Horse in Hackneys?

The Hackney Horse VS Pony

The Hackney was being imported to the United States from England by the late 1800's. It was in this time that the breeding to achieve the specific pony type was begun through crossing the Hackney horse with ponies of good conformation and motion. Today 95% of all registered Hackneys in the United States are ponies.

   
The 3 Day Stallion Selection process involves?

The Oldenburg

The final examination in Oldenburg lasts for three days. On the first day the young stallions are formally examined for the first time. The second day is devoted to a review of older stallions who have been brought for examination by the many breeders who have assembled from many parts of the world. On the third day, the young stallions are examined for the final time, and those to be "graded" are chosen. Also selected at this time are the finest of the young graded stallions to be designated as "premium stallions". Of the many young stallions brought for judging, only a very small percentage is approved each year.

   
who were other breeders responsible for the Oldenburg?

The Oldenburg

Graf Anton Gunther von Oldenburg (1603 - 1667), who became even more famous than his predecessor, traveled extensively throughout Europe and brought back to Oldenburg the elegant stallions of Naples, Spain, Poland, England, Tartary, and Barbary. Graf Anton Gunther permitted his tenants and other commoners to use his stallions, and soon the 17th Century Oldenburgs were in great demand throughout Europe, serving as elegant riding horses and tall, very attractive carriage horses. Leopold I, King of the Holy Roman Empire, rode through Vienna on his wedding day astride a black Oldenburg stallion. He was followed by his wife who sat in a splendid carriage pulled by eight ermine colored Oldenburgs. Anton Gunther was famous for his traditional dressage riding, most notably the passage on his famous Oldenburg stallion, Kranich.

   
how is the Swedish Warmblood selected for registry?

Selection of the Swedish Warmblood

Stallions and mares are judged in hand when at least 3 years of age and graded for 1) type, 2) head, neck and body, 3) extremities, 4) walk, and 5) trot. A score of 10 is ideal, with 5 as passable. Mares are approved with a minimum score of 34 with Class II (36-37 points) and Class I (38 or more points) being recommended for breeding. Stallions must score at least 38 points, with no individual score under 7 points, and pass a performance test for approval. Radiographs are also performed to evaluate a stallions soundness.

   
why is the Swedish Warmblood desired as a Breed?

Why The Swedish Warmblood Is Desired

Elegance, combined with excellent gaits and a positive attitude, jumping ability and capacity to absorb training make the Swedish Warmblood (SWB) well suited for international equestrian sports, and dressage in particular. Swedish horses have been medalists in virtually every Olympiad since 1912, most often in dressage, but also in combined training. In the 1988 Seoul Games, 13 Swedish Warmbloods participated in dressage and 6 won medals. In the 1960 Rome Olympiad, the stallion Drabant had six sons participating. The versatility of the SWB horse was proven by Thomas Eriksson when he captured the individual gold medal in four-in-hand combined driving at the World Equestrian Games in 1990.

   
how did the Oldenburg start, and where?

The Oldenburg

The Oldenburg is bred in a small area near the modern region of Lower Saxony surrounding the city of Oldenburg, a breeding area historically confined to approximatively 5,400 square kilometers, in the center of the Hannoverian region. The average breeder is a farmer with from 20 to 100 hectares of land and two to four registered breeding mares. The breed, also found in East Friesland, can be traced back to the 17th Century, with bloodlines based on the Friesian horse.

   
when were the Registries formed for the Hackneys´?

The Hackney Registries Created

In 1883 the English Hackney Horse Society was created to preserve and develop the integrity of the Hackney lines. The first annual show was held by the society in 1885 in London. In 1891, the American Hackney Horse Society was formed.

   
how did the Swedish Warmblood start?

Swedish Warmbloods-Origins

The history of the Swedish horse closely follows that of humans in the region. Archeological evidence has been found for the existence of horses in what is now Sweden dating to 4,000 B.C. The original Scandinavian horse is said to be small, 12 to 14 hands, high spirited and having good endurance. In the sixteenth century a program was began to improve the quality of the native horses. Friesians were imported from the Netherlands to increase the size of the native stock. Other importations of various saddle breeds were made but the larger draft breeds were excluded from the importations. The major centers of this breeding was at the national stud farms of Kungsör, Strömsholm and Flyinge. The horses from these farms were often used in the royal stables.

   
Are Friesian horses good all round horses?

The Friesian Horse-Current Popularity

Audiences love the Friesian horse and because of their can't-get-enough-of them crowd appeal, they are now seen everywhere, in all the major equestrian events throughout North America. And when a distinctive horse is required to set a tone in a movie the Friesian is called on to create that historical or mystical illusion.

North America is 'in love' with the Friesian horse whether it is as an an unsurpassed carriage horse, a striking dressage mount, an amazing circus horse of simply as a beloved family pet. Because of all the growth and enthusiasm- with all that's been accomplished in the last 25 years the four Friesian Horse Clubs spanning the West Coast are joining together to' produce the greatest Friesian horse event in North America, ..ever. In celebration of the Golden Age of the Friesian horse...www.friesianextravaganza.com

   
What is a buckskin horse?

The Buckskin Horse

Buckskin Horses must have a body coat of some shade of yellow, but not red. The points are black or dark brown. A dorsal stripe is not necessary.

   
What is the purpose of the Buckskin Horse Association?

The International Buckskin Horse Association

The IBHA was registered in 1971 to register and to preserve the pedigree and to promote the activity of the Buckskin Horse, the Dun Horse, the Red Dun Horse and the Gruella Horse. The IBHA has proven to be the largest and most progressive registry in the world for the registry of these horses. By creating interest and a demand through National, State, Family and Individual activities, the marketability of IBHA Registered Horses has only increased. Activities are promoted through state chartered associations and national marketing and advertising. IBHA maintains permanent horse show records and pedigrees. The official IBHA publication, Horse Circuit News, provides members with current registry information on a monthly basis.

   
How do I know the color requirements for a Palomino Horse?

Palomino Horse - Color Requirements

104. Palomino Color Characteristics:
A. The ideal body coat color is approximately the color of a United States gold coin.
B. The following body color traits are not acceptable:
1) A brown or black dorsal stripe along the spine.
2) Alternating bands of lighter and darker hairs running around the legs (zebra stripes) or across the withers (wither or neck stripes).
3) These include spotting and characteristics typical of paints, pintos, appaloosas, and albinos.
4) White hairs interspersed within the coat associated with the roan, grey, or rabicano patterns.
105. Skin Color. The skin must be dark colored (grey, black, brown, motley) without pink spots wherever it shows around the nose and eyes, under the tail, and between the hind legs, except for skin on the face which may be pink where it is a continuation of a white marking.

A. EXCEPTION: Horses also registered with the American Saddlebred Horse Association may have skin color of any shade.

   
what are the Class Divisions for the Hackney Pony?

The Hackney Pony Class Divisions

The most popular place for the Hackney pony today is the show ring. There they may be shown with either a cob tail or a long tail. The cob tail pony's tail is docked at about six inches long and its mane is braided into 14 tight little knobs with colored ribbon. The cob tail creates a clean image, close to the appearance of the traditional English carriage horse. The long-tail pony retains a long tail and long, flowing mane. The two types may be shown in the same classes or they may be divided into Hackney pony and Harness pony classes. The taste of the individual breeder or trainer and the specific breeding of the pony largely determine the style.

   
What is a saddle type of Pinto horse?

The Saddle Horse Type of Pinto

The SADDLE TYPE Pinto is an animal suitable for: (1) general English, western, and driving events; and (2) a variety of other events. The Saddle Type Pinto should display the conformation associated with American Saddlebred, Tennessee Walking or Missouri Foxtrotter breeding.

   
what is the current standards in the ring for Hackneys?

The Hackney in Shows

Since the development of the automobile eliminated the demand for carriage horses for transportation, the most popular use of the Hackney has been in the show ring. Hackneys are shown almost exclusively in harness (singly, in pairs, or in tandem), but they may be shown in hand, (lead by a person on the ground).

   
what is the definition of a Sport Horse?

The Sport Horse Definition

Sport horse refers to the intended use of the breed - as a competitive and recreational horse for the major international equestrian disciplines of dressage, jumping, 3-day event, and driving.

   
the Preliminary Selection leads into what processes for an Oldenburg?

The Oldenburg

Following selection based on conformation and type, young privately owned stallions spend approximately 100 days at the government-owned and-operated testing station at Adelheidsdorf, near Celle, or Medingen, West Germany. During this training period, under the control of a government-employed rider, the young stallion's character, disposition, willingness to work, and temperament are carefully observed and noted. In the performance test the stallion demonstrates his endurance, speed, jumping ability, general courage, manner of going and rideability. Only after passing demanding performance tests are the young stallions finally approved for breeding. A horse that may be handsome enough to be initially approved for breeding but that does not pass the performance test can not receive final breeding stock status. Those horses, therefore, who qualify, are truly identified as the finest representatives of the breed.

   
How do I know if I can register a horse as a Palomino?

The Palomino Horse - Eligibility For Registration

The Solid Gold of Rodeos, Parades, State Fairs, and childhood memories of Roy Rogers and Dale Evans or Mr. Ed!

To be eligible for registration, a Palomino must show refinement of head, bone, and general structure appropriate to the breeds recognized by PHBA, and be suitable for carrying western or English equipment. The horse must be between fourteen (14) and seventeen (17) hands when fully matured and must show no pony or draft horse characteristics.

   
What is the requirements to register Pinto?

Pedigree Requirements to Register Pinto

While PtHA accepts animals derived from many different approved breed/registry crosses, it does NOT accept animals with Appaloosa, Draft or Mule breeding and/or characteristics. HORSE STALLIONS must have both sire and dam registered with PtHA or another approved outcross registry. PONY/MINIATURE STALLIONS must have at least one parent (sire or dam) registered with a recognized breed association [Effective 1-1-99]. Mares and Geldings can be registered on their qualifying color alone.

   
What is the color requirement to register Pinto?

Color Requirements to Register Pinto

The color requirement, predicated on the age of the animal at time of application, is a total of 15 square inches of underlying pink skin with white hair on the body or certain designated areas of the head (i.e. eligible zone) for horses two years and older, 8 square inches for yearlings, or 4 square inches for weanlings. Minimum requirements for ponies and miniatures are 50% and 25% of those for horses, respectively. Animals with insufficient "qualifying color" to be accepted in the regular color division but with at least two or more "Pinto" characteristics OR solid colored animals with documented and registered pinto-colored sire and/or dam may be eligible for registration in the Breeding Stock Division.

   
What is a good book about Paint Horses?

Recommended Book On Paints

Creating A Legacy of Color, by Marrita McMillian (from the Paint Horse).

   
is there Thoroughbred blood in the Oldenburg?

The Oldenburg

In addition to the efforts of the Oldenburg rulers, the modern horses also owe their refinement in part to the introduction, during the late 18th and very early 19th centuries, of English Thoroughbred blood. The English Hannoverian King, George I, together with his successors, took an interest in the horses bred in their country of origin and sent over a great many Thoroughbreds to improve the local stock.

   
how did the Swedish Warmblood Registry begin in the USA?

The Swedish Warmblood Registry in the USA

The Swedish Warmblood Association of North America (SWANA) was established in the 1980's as breeding of Swedish Warmblood horses became more popular in United States and Canada. SWANA continues the traditions of the SWA, employing the SWA breeding committee for Inspections to maintain consistency of the breed.

   
definitions of the "types" of DWB available today?

The Dutch Warmblood Horse

Today in Holland there are three distinct types of horses bred.

The third type is the "Basistype" or Basic type - a stylish all-round horse reminiscent of the earlier Gelderlander, useful for riding, driving, and farm work, and important for maintaining the gene pool of the old Gelderlanders that is still used in the breeding of the Riding and Show Driving types.

   
where was the Clydesdale Horse first registered?

The Clydesdale Horse - First Recognition

This breed's official debut under the name Clydesdale was at the 1826 Glasgow Exhibition in Scotland.

The Clydesdale was bred for hauling coal and doing farm work. In Scotland it eventually replaced the Shire breed as a carriage horse.

   
when did the American Holsteiner Assoc. form?

The Holsteiner

The American Holsteiner Horse Association was established in 1977 to promote and support the enjoyment and breeding of the Holsteiner Warmblood horse in North America and is the registry and studbook for Holsteiners in North America. Its primary goal is to develop the Holsteiner into the world's most successful sport horse.

   
how does Mares differ from Stallions in description in the Shire?

The Shire Horse - Mares

Mares should conform to the stallion standards, except that they may be slightly smaller with a feminine and matronly appearance. A mare should have plenty of room to carry a foal.

   
the who´s who of the DWB world?

The Dutch Warmblood Horse

It is a remarkable sport horse which has made a meteoric rise to prominence in the international equestrian world in recent years. The Who's Who of international superstars includes names like Calypso, Next Milton, Big Ben, Ampere, Ommen, Zucarlos, Linky, Eastern Sunrise, Pascal, Ideaal and many more.

   
What is a Road Horse or Pony?

The Hackney Road Horse/Pony

Hackneys are also very popular for use as "road ponies." Their fast trot that maintains its high action is ideal for the racing-type shows where they are exhibited. Road ponies are shown pulling a brightly painted two-wheel cart called a "bike". The drivers wear silks similar to those worn in Standardbred or Sulky or Trotter or Pacer racing.

   
how can I recognize a Cleveland Bay horse?

The Cleveland Bay Marks of Distinction

In consequence, Cleveland Bays stamp their get with remarkable uniformity of size, conformation, soundness, stamina, disposition and color.

   
what are the recognized body markings of the Appaloosa Horse?

Appaloosa-Markings on the Body

Location Of Patterns
In reviewing the descriptions of various coat patterns, the necessity of correctly specifying anatomical regions of the horse probably became quite apparent. The five classifications of blanket pattern locations used by the Appaloosa Horse Club are:

Hips
Loin and hips
Back and hips (markings extend over a portion of the back, up to the withers.)
Body and hips (markings extend from the hips, inclusive of a portion of the shoulders and/or neck, but do not cover the entire horse.)
Entire body (markings cover the head, neck, shoulder, back, loin hips and upper legs).

   
How old is the Cleveland Bay Breed?

The Cleveland Bay

The Cleveland Bay is the oldest established breed of English Horse. It is known as the English Sporthorse.

   
What are the Breed Characteristics of the Hanoverian?

The Hanoverian

The Hanoverian is a noble, correctly proportioned warmblood horse with natural balance, impulsion and elegant, elastic movements characterized by a floating trot, a round rhythmic canter, and a ground-covering walk.

   
how should the Shire Horse´s head look?

The Shire Horse - Conformation - Head

Head: Long and lean, neither too large nor too small, with long neck in proportion to the body. Large jaw bone should be avoided.

   
What breeds of horses are eligible for Registry as a Palomino Horse?

Palomino Horse - Eligible Breeds For Registry

ELIGIBLE HORSES 120. Additional requirements for registration of horses registered in recognized breed associations are as follows:

121. PHBA recognizes the following breed registries, relative to the registration of Palomino horses. Horses registered in these associations must meet the appropriate qualifications including but not limited to body coat, skin, mane, tail, and white markings as stated elsewhere in the Registration and Transfer Rules. (Please see in Favorite Links to view each of these sites below!):
A. American Morgan Horse Association (AMHA).
B. American Quarter Horse Association (AQHA).
C. American Saddlebred Horse Association (ASHA).
D. Arabian Horse Registry (AHR)
E. International Arabian Horse Association (IAHA).
F. Jockey Club (JC)
G. Tennessee Walking Horse Breeders and Exhibitors' Association (TWHBEA).
H. Mountain Pleasure Horse Association (MPHA)
I. International Morab Registry (IMR)
J. American Paint Horse Association (APHA)
K. Appaloosa Horse Club

   
how do the Pony & the Horse differ now in current breeding programs?

The Hackney Current Breeding Standards

Although the Hackney horse had been imported to the United States for over 75 years, the Hackney pony was imported heavily to the U. S. beginning in 1872 with Stella 239. Many stallions which were highly influential in Britain in developing the ponies were brought to America either in the middle of their siring careers or for a few years before being taken back to England. There were also a number of stallions bred in America and later sent to England. For this reason, British and American ponies are more closely bred than some other breeds. Among those sires are Irvington Autocrat 1914, Southworth Swell 2175 and Paddock Lane's Robin Rea 2474. The strongest influence seems to have come from Southworth Swell, imported in 1925 by J. Macy Willets of Cassilis Farm. Most Hackney ponies today have his bloodlines in their pedigree.

   
what is the Breed Standard for the POA?

Pony of the Americas Breed Standard

The standards Les and his friends set up were a real challenge to any breeder. To be registered as a POA, strict guidelines were followed. The pony had to be between the height limits of 44 inches to 52 inches. The head was to be small and dished as the Arab; the body was to be muscled as the Quarter Horse; and the coloring had to be Appaloosa, visible at 40 feet. This was to be a breed for children to ride and show. Adults could only show the animals at halter or with a cart. So these equines must also be gentle and easy to train.

   
what discipline is the Oldenburg most popular in today?

The Oldenburg

Oldenburgs are used today for show-jumping and dressage and three day event as well as occasional driving.

   
how to contact the DWB horse association?

The Dutch Warmblood Horse

North American Department

Royal Warmblood Studbook of the Netherlands

P O Box 866, Winchester, OR 97495

Phone: (541)672 8145

email: nawpn@rosenet.net

   
what Breeds of Horses are found in the DWB?

Breeds Combining Into The DWB

The Gelderlander, which evolved on the light sandy soils of central Holland was a stylish horse of medium stature, frequently chestnut with flashy white markings; while the Groningen evolved on the heavy clay soils of northern Holland into a larger and heavier horse, frequently black.

   
How is the Hackney Pony conformation requirements?

The Hackney Pony Conformation

The Hackney pony is expected to show distinct pony characteristics, such as small and neat ears; eyes bright, bold and alert; muzzle fine and reasonably small.

The body of a Hackney pony can be somewhat more compact than that of the horse, but the general conformation is similar. A height at maturity from 12.2 to 14 hands is characteristic of the breed.

   
what are the markings recognized of an Appaloosa on the hooves?

Appaloosa-Striped Hooves

Striped Hooves

Many Appaloosas will have bold and clearly defined vertically light or dark striped hooves. Vertical stripes may result from a injury to the coronet or a white marking on the leg. Also light colored horses tend to have thin stripes in their hooves. As a result, all striped hooves do not necessarily distinguish Appaloosas from non-Appaloosas. Look for other Appaloosa characteristics if any of these situations apply to your horse.

   
what changes has the POA made in the Registry & Organization?

POA, Changes In Registry Requirements

The height limit of the breed increased to 46 inches and 54 inches in 1963. It was about this time the Shetland began to disappear from the POA breeding program. Larger ponies like the Welsh and small horses like the wild mustang and the Arab were combined with Indian ponies, Quarter Horses and Appaloosas by the breeders to achieve that "little horse" look. The membership voted in 1985 to again raise the upper height limit to 56 inches beginning in 1986. The age limit of a child showing went from age 16 in 1954 to 18 in 1973. In 1987, 19 and over riding classes were added with a limitation for the POAs under saddle to be only 2, 3, and 4 year olds in training. In 1988, the first national POA Convention was held. In 1990, a Hall of Fame for POAs and POA members was begun.

   
Establishment of POA Registry and Organization began how?

The POA

What intrigued Les the most were the spots on the colt's flank that formed a definite black hand. Another idea was forming in Les' mind as he watched the colt he named Black Hand. He called his Shetland breeder friends to his Memory Lane Ranch to discuss his idea, and the Pony Of the Americas Club was born. Les' expertise in the law set up a solid foundation for this new breed registry.

   
how tall is the Shire Horse?

The Shire Horse - Height

Height: Minimum 16.2 hands and upwards. Average 17.1 hands.

   
what breeds did the Canadian Horse influence?

The Canadian Horse Influences

In the mid-1800's, the Canadian Horse numbered about 150,000 and could be found throughout Canada and the United States. The Canadian was used for crossbreeding to improve the strength and hardiness of other breeds, and helped to found other North American breeds such as the Morgan, Tennessee Walking Horse, Standardbred, and the American Saddlebred.

   
what is the history of the Oldenburg?

The Oldenburg

Originally developed as a good strong carriage horse, the breed contains Spanish, Neopolitan and Barb blood, along with Thoroughbred and Hannoverian. The early Oldenburg horses were well-known for consistency in conformation, great power, and their magnificent coal black color. They were also famed for their kind character and extreme willingness to work-under saddle, in front of a carriage or in the fields. During the present century, as the need for carriage horses dwindled, more Thoroughbred and Norman blood was introduced, resulting in production of a magnificent all-purpose saddle horse.

   
what is the Swedish Warmblood Studbook?

The Swedish Warmblood Studbook

A complete register of brood mares and their foals has been kept since 1894. North American horses have their own part of the stud book, beginning with volume 50 (in 1987). Mares and stallions are listed under their dams until approved for breeding, at which time they receive their final registration number.

   
how did the Belgian Horse come to America?

The Belgian Horse - Importation to America

In 1903 the government of Belgium sent an exhibit of horses to the St. Louis World's Fair and the International Livestock Exposition in Chicago. While this effort was attended by plenty of controversy over which type of horse best suited Americans, it also generated a great deal of interest in the breed.

   
What is a Red Dun Colored Horse?

The Red Dun Horse

Red Dun Horses have a dun colored body coat (flesh colored or a red coloration). The points are dare red or red mixed with black. A dorsal stripe MUST BE PRESENT.

   
How do I know if I can register a horse as a Paint?

Registry Requirements For Paints

To be eligible for registry, a Paint's sire and dam must be registered with the American Paint Horse Association, the American Quarter Horse Association, or the Jockey Club (Thoroughbreds). To be eligible for the Regular Registry, the horse must also exhibit a minimum amount of white hair over unpigmented (pink) skin.

   
what is known as the "little iron horse"?

The Canadian Horse Characteristics

Because they evolved under the adverse conditions of harsh weather, scarce food, and hard work, the Canadian Horse remains the sturdiest and most acclimatized horse in Canada today. They are tough, strong horses, tolerant of inclement weather conditions, and are extremely “easy keepers”. Because of these traits, the Canadian Horse is often referred to as “The Little Iron Horse”.

   
where do I contact Breeders of the Cleveland Bay in England?

The Cleveland Bay England Contact

Cleveland Bay Horse Society, York Livestock Centre, Murton, York, United Kingdom Y01 3UF

Telephone: (01904) 489731, fax (01904) 489782

   

The Oldenburg

Most of the breeding of Oldenburg horses today is in the hands of private individuals, closely controlled by the Oldenburg Breeding Society. Unlike many other Warmblood breeds, the modern Oldenburg horse is the result of utilizing the best of all European bloodstock. Private breeders are able to travel throughout Europe and the United Kingdom, while state-controlled breeding societies are limited, by funding and other restrictions, to their local stock. Ownership of Oldenburg stallions by private breeders, who can afford the best and most expensive, has resulted in many mare owners from the surrounding Hannoverian breeding area bringing their horses to Oldenburg stallions despite the fact that breeding fees are often as much as twice those offered by government owned Hannoverians.

   
how has the Oldenburg progressed and been refined in the 20th Century?

The Oldenburg

Since the 1930s, the aim of the modern Oldenburg breeder has concentrated on production of an all-purpose saddle horse. To further this goal, additional Thoroughbred blood was introduced to the breed. Starting with the introduction of Adonis in 1959, Thoroughbreds such as Manolete, Miracolo, Guter Gast, More Magic, Vollkorn, and Makuba were used to make Oldenburgs even more elegant and refined.

The results of these cross-breedings were then combined with elegant sport-horse-type stallions from France, Trakehners, and Hannoverians. Many pedigrees of modern Oldenburgs thus contain some of the best Hannoverian sires, such as Absatz, Gotthard, Grande, Der Lowe; such famous Trakehners as Hessenstein, Herbststurm, and Gunnar; as well as Furioso II and Inshallah representative of French blood.

   
what is the description of the Appaloosa´s skin markings?

Appaloosa-Mottled or Partly Colored Skin

Mottled or Parti-Colored Skin

This characteristic is unique to the Appaloosa horse. Therefore, mottled skin is a basic and decisive indicator of an Appaloosa. Mottled skin is different from commonly found pink (flesh-colored or non-pigmented) skin in that it normally contains dark areas of pigmented skin within its area. The result is a speckled or blotchy pattern of pigmented and non-pigmented skin. When identifying mottled skin, it is important to not confuse it with simple differences in pigmentation, patches of light and dark skin, and pumpkin skin.

   
how does the CB bloodlines compare to European Warmbloods?

The Cleveland Bay Purity of Bloodlines

The Cleveland Bay is unique in its carefully maintained purity. While the warmbloods of France, Germany, Sweden, Poland, Hungary and other European countries have produced a number of good individuals, their pedigrees are riddled with recent Thoroughbred, Arabian and other outcrosses.

   
What are the accepted coat patterns for the Appaloosa Horse?

The Appaloosa Horse - Coat Patterns

Coat Patterns
A remarkable aspect of the Appaloosa is the myriad of color and pattern combinations he can exhibit. The following are seven common terms used to describe Appaloosa patterns. The description used by the Registration Department differs slightly. Appaloosa patterns are highly variable and there are many which may not fit into specific categories easily.

Blanket - refers to a horse which has a solid white area normally over, but not limited to, the hip area with a contrasting base color.
Spots - refers to a horse which has white or dark spots over all or a portion of its body.
Blanket With Spots - refers to a horse with a white blanket which has dark spots within the white. The spots are usually the same color as the horse's base color.
Roan - A horse exhibiting the Appaloosa roan pattern develops a lighter colored area on the forehead, jowls and fotal bones of the face, over the back, loin and hips. Darker areas may appear along the frontal bones of the face as well and also on the legs, stifle, above the eye, point of the hip and behind the elbow. Without an apparent Appaloosa blanket or spots, a hore with only the above-listed characteristics will also need mottled skin and one other characteristic to qualify for regular registration.
Roan Blanket - refers to a horse having the roan pattern consisting of a mixture of light and dark hairs, over a portion of the body. The blanket normally occurs over, but is not limited to, the hip area.
Roan Blanket With Spots - refers to a horse with a roan blanket which has white and/or dark spots within the roan area.
Solid - refers to a horse which has a base color as is described on the proceding pages but no contrasting color in the form of an Appaloosa coat pattern. This horse will need mottled skin and one other characteristic to receive regular papers.

   
Do you have information on what is a Quarter Horse?

Brief Overview of the American Quarter Horse

The American Quarter Horse

The American Quarter Horse originated in the United States in the Colonial Era. The American Quarter Horse Association was formed in 1941, and is currently the largest recognized breed in the United States. The American Quarter Horse Registry is comprised of two parts: the purebred Quarter Horse, and the Appendix, which is a Registered Quarter Horse crossed with a Registered Thoroughbred.

The Quarter Horse's fame began with the Colonists who favored racing, and the Quarter Horse proved himself in the short, quarter mile distances over all other breeds of the day; The Quarter Horse quickly became known as the "Quarter Pathers".

Once the West began to develop, the Quarter Horse was taken along by the new Pilgrims as they made their way to the West. Quickly becoming the favored mount of the Ranchers and the Cowboys for the Quarter Horse's keen sense working with cattle, in and out of herds.

The Quarter Horse has established himself throughout the years in the Western Circles from Trail through to Penning, Cutting, and Roping.

The Quarter Horse is fast setting his mark in the English circles of today, by establishing records in Hunter/Jumpers, Eventing and Dressage circles.

Notorious for the excessively muscular rear quarters and shoulders; both stallion and late gelded geldings exhibit those famous excessively large jowels. The average Quarter Horse stands at 14 hands to 15.2 hands in height, and is any color; with several colors indigenous to the Quarter Horse himself....such colors as Gruella, Dun and Sorrel.

Notoriously great as a family's and children's horse, due to the steady, and consistant temperment. This factor coupled with the athletic ability of many of the Quarter Horse bloodlines, has increased the Quarter Horse's popularity worldwide, and made him the current number one choice today in America.

   
how did the Belgian Horse color come about?

The Belgian Horse - History of Color

Along with the changes in conformation has come a color change. The original imports came in many color coats with a predominance of bay. About half of the first imports were bay and bay-brown, followed by roan, chestnut sorrel, black, and even a few greys. There was no particular Belgian color at the outset.

By the 20's and 30's, when the breed really hit its stride in this country the breed had pretty well become the "sorrels and roans." Now there are a few roans and even the odd bay now and then, but for all practical purposes, it is a chestnut-sorrel breed today.

   
What is the Heavy Horse Breeds?

Heavy Horses or Draft Horses

Heavy Horses, or the "Cold Breeds" for years have brought tears to the eye, and "warm fuzzies" to the heart of many; the famous Budweiser Clydesdales, the Belgian Teams, The Norfolk, The Shires, all have touched the hearts of most, whether they be horse enthusiasts or not. The vehicles are usually wagons or farm equipment bearing great weight. The vehicles are heavy and substantial and solidly built and therefore so must be the horses that pull them.

   
what is the Hackney Horse or Pony?

The Hackney Horse/Pony

The Hackney is a dynamic, high-stepper with two branches -- the horse and the pony -- both bred specifically for their brilliant performance in harness.

   
how can I contact the Shire Horse Association?

The Shire Horse - Contact

Contact: The American Shire Horse Association at:
www.shirehorse.org

   
Selection of Stallions for Oldenburg Breeding & Registry?

The Oldenburg

While many German breeding societies restrict their attempts at improvement to their own stud books, the Oldenburg Breeding Society seeks out the finest stallions from among many breeds. As a result of this effort to locate and use the finest bloodlines of France, England, Ireland, and Germany, the modern Oldenburg is slightly taller, lighter, and extremely elegant, in contrast to many other German Warmbloods.

In order for an Oldenburg stallion to be approved for breeding, the horse must first be certified by an official licensing commission from the breed society. Each year, in October, hundreds of two-and-one-half year old stallions are gathered for inspection. This group of young horses is further reduced to what must be considered the finest of the group - approximately 75-85 young stallions.

   
what is the history of the Holsteiner Horse?

The Holsteiner

The Holsteiner initially evolved from native North German stock in the province of Schleswig-Holstein and were in high demand by the military and royalty throughout Europe. As demand grew for a lighter horse, infusions of the Yorkshire Coach Horse were used.

About the turn of the century, Thoroughbreds and Anglo-Normans were used to begin shaping the breed into a world-class performance horse. While excelling in the jumping sport, the Holsteiner has also made his mark in Dressage, Eventing and Combined Driving. Holsteiner blood is also greatly valued in other Warmblood breeds, being found conspicuously in the Dutch Warmblood horse.

   
who are the AB Clydesdales?

The AB Clydesdale Horses

The Anheuser Busch Clydesdales are the famous Budweiser Clydesdales that represent the Brewery, or hence, the AB Clydesdales. Their home site is at:
www.abclydesdales.com

   
what is the standard for the Hackney Pony?

The Hackney Pony Standard

The Hackney pony is small in stature, under 14.2 hands at the withers (58 inches). It possesses a fine, trim head, small ears with a balanced body, trim legs and feet, short back and well-arched head and tail.

   
how do Geldings differ from Stallions in the Shire Horse?

The Shire Horse - Geldings

Geldings should conform to stallion standards, with the exception of the thick, masculine neck.

   
how is the USA Registry different from the European Verband?

The Holsteiner

Even as an independent Association, it maintains a strong working relationship with the German Holsteiner Verband. This benefits the breeder through the opportunity to call upon the Verband's vast knowledge of Holsteiner bloodlines while allowing for the uniqueness of the North American situation. At the same time, it stays abreast of current trends and new developments in equine science, business and equestrian disciplines, while remaining sensitive to the needs of the horse community.

   
Oldenburg current popularity?

The Oldenburg

Due to their natural athletic ability, many Oldenburg horses are bought and trained for use as show-jumpers. This international sport offers great challenge, as well as significant financial rewards, and horses with the ability and talent to excel in the sport often sell for very good prices.

   
Is An American Quarter Horse A Good Breed?

The American Quarter Horse

The American Quarter Horse is the Nation's Number 1 Ranch & Family Breed of Horse. Their quiet, willing nature is personified, and their great heart is evident by the full swing of their involvement in all Equestrian Disciplines.

   
what is the history of the Belgian Horse?

The Belgian Horse - History

Belgium lies in the very center of that area of Western Europe which gave rise to great black horses known as Flemish horses and were referred to as the "great horses" by medieval writers. They are the horses that carried armored knights into battle. Such horses were known to exist in that part of Europe in the time of Caesar. They provided the genetic material from which nearly all the modern draft breeds were fashioned.

   
what is the General Description of the Shire Stallion?

The Shire Horse - Stallion General Appearance

The Stallion should possess a masculine head, and a good crest with sloping, not upright, shoulders running well into the back, which should be short and well coupled with the loins. The tail should be set well up, and not what Is known as "goose-rumped." Both head and tail should be carried erect. The ribs should be well sprung, not flat sided, with good middle, which generally denotes good constitution. The most essential parts of a stallion are his feet and joints; the feet should have open necks, big around the top of the coronets, with plenty of length in the pasterns. When in motion, he should go with force, using both knees and hocks, which the latter should be kept close together. He should go straight and true before and behind.

   
What is a pleasure Pinto type of Horse?

Pleasure Type of Pinto

The PLEASURE TYPE Pinto is an animal presented in a natural manner and suitable for: (1) general western, English, and driving events; and (2) a variety of other events. The Pleasure Type Pinto should display the conformation associated with Arabian or classic Morgan breeding.

   
What is a hackney pony?

Hackney Horse or Pony

The origins of the Hackney as we know it began in Norfolk, England where the horses called Norfolk Trotters had been selectively bred for elegant style and speed. Seeking to improve on both counts, breeders mated the Norfolk mares to grandsons of the foundation sires of the Thoroughbred. The first Hackney as we know the breed today is said to be The Shale's Horse, foaled in 1760. During the next 50 years, the Hackney was developed as a special breed.

By the Society's rules, conformation is giving greater importance than action in hand classes with an emphasis on quality. Quality may be defined as well-balanced physique with clean limbs; it is also expressed in a generous and alert demeanor which may be emphasized by good presentation.

The head should have a straight or slightly convex profile with clear, intelligent eyes set fairly wide apart; the ears should be well-formed and active.
When standing, the Hackney should have its head and neck raised, expressing the alert and active character of the breed.

The neck should be of moderate length, with more or less crest according to age and sex. The poll should be of good length. The throat should be fine so that there is no restriction of the air passages when bridling. The neck should be well attached to reasonably high withers set on powerful, obliquely sloping shoulders.

The body should be of adequate length with well-sprung ribs and of a good depth. A fairly long back is not objectionable in a mare. The upper line of the croup from the loins to the tail should form a convex curve with the tail well carried. Viewed from the front, the chest should be of ample but not excessive width, while from the rear the quarters and gaskins must be well muscled.

The legs should have plenty of clean, flat bone with the tendons clearly defined. Excessive fineness of bone, especially any tendency to be "tied in below the knee," is objectionable in the Hackney. The forelegs should be attached well forward, beneath the point of the shoulder. The forearms should be long and well developed while the cannon bones should be short and clean with plenty of good, flat bone. The pasterns should be sufficiently long and set at the proper oblique angle to provide a light and springy step. From the side the forelegs should not show any tendency to be "back or over at the knees." From the front they should be seen to be upright without any turning out or in of the pasterns. The hind legs should be of good length from the stifles to the hocks with short cannon bones. The hocks should be well formed and not be too upright when the horse is standing at ease.

The hooves should be well rounded, in front forming an angle of about 50 degrees with the ground at the toe. The hind hooves will form a rather more upright angle. The hooves should be open at the heels and have concave soles.

When shown in hand, a true, four-beat walk is expected. This should be straight with the forelegs well extended and the hocks flexed in a stride that has the hind feet overstriding the imprints made by the forefeet. To achieve this in most cases it is necessary to give freedom of movement to the horse's head which, in the case of entries, may mean letting out the side reins. The trot in hand should show well rounded front action, taking a stride of good length with the hocks flexed and following through. Dishing or crossing of the forelegs should be penalised. Straight action is most important in breeding classes as defects in this regard can be hereditary.

The Hackney Horse Movement In Harness
In show harness classes, high action is of greater importance. The front action should be lofty and well rounded with no tendency to brush the elbows. It must also be straight and true and the front feet must be placed squarely on the ground. Dropping on the heels is faulty. The hind legs should be well flexed and brought forward under the body with a piston like action. Dwelling of the hocks in a flexed position is undesirable. Excessive speed at the trot is not wanted, the aim being to give a well-balanced performance presenting a pleasing picture of poise and elegance.

   
what was the origin of the Oldenburg in the USA?

The Oldenburg

The Oldenburg horse once again took on a mantle of fame, becoming a highly desirable breed, at the time mostly as elegant, supple, fine-moving carriage horses. Some were even exported to the United States. In 1922 the Oldenburg registry contained 3,250 stallions and 34,000 mares.

   
What is a stock Pinto?

Stock Type of Pinto

The STOCK TYPE Pinto is an animal suitable for (1) western events; (2) Hunter Seat events; and (3) a variety of other events. The Stock Type Pinto should display the conformation associated with Quarter Horse breeding. Generally, double-registered Paints (APHA) will be registered in this division.

   
What is a gruella colored horse?

The Gruella Horse

Gruella Horses are smokey grey in color with no white hairs mixed throughout. A dorsal stripe MUST BE PRESENT.

   
how is the Clydesdale viewed by others?

The Clydesdale - Poem of Dedication

Thudding hoof and flowing hair, Style and action sweet and fair,
Bone and sinew well defined, Movement close both fore and hind,
Noble eye and handsome head, Bold, intelligent, well-bred,
Lovely neck and shoulder laid, See how shapely he is made,
Muscle strong and frame well knit, Strength personified and fit,
Thus the Clydesdale – see him go, To the field, the stud, the show,
Proper back and ribs well sprung, Sound of limb, and sound of lung,
Powerful loin, and quarter wide, Grace and majesty allied,
Basic power – living force – Equine king – the Clydesdale horse.

   
What is the origins of the Hackney?

The Hackney Horse/Pony Origin

The Hackney horse was developed in Great Britain in the early 18th Century from the Darley Arabian through his son, Flying Childerns, foaled in 1715, and grandson, Blaze, a renowned British Thoroughbred foaled in 1733.

   
the Oldenburg´s progression in development with technology?

The Oldenburg

The invention and acceptance of the automobile as a means of transportation resulted in a natural reduction in the need for carriage horses. The breeding aim of the Oldenburg societies, along with their counterparts in other breeds, changed emphasis to meet the agricultural requirement for strong, hard-working horses. Additional Thoroughbred blood was introduced to create refinement and a more well-rounded all-purpose horse. The winner of the 1935 Derby, Lupus xx, and the Anglo-Norman, Condor (62.5 percent Thoroughbred) founded a new stallion line. This line produced a very consistent type of heavy, well-moving, mostly black in color, well-tempered Oldenburg mares. In keeping with requirements of the time, stallions were required, as part of their performance tests, to pull a heavy sledge at the walk; trot before a light carriage; and work at least 1000 meters under saddle.

   
How do I know if the white markings on my Palomino is registerable?

Palomino Horse - Mane/Tail/White Markings

107. Mane and Tail. The mane and tail must be a minimum of eighty-five (85%) percent white, and may have no more than fifteen (15%) percent black, sorrel, chestnut or off colored hair in either. Mane and tail may not be chemically altered.

WHITE MARKINGS

108. White Markings. Palominos may have white leg and face markings.

A. Breeding Stock Palominos may be eligible for registration provided the white markings and pink skin underlying the white markings do not extend beyond the lines described as follows: please see site description!

B. Palomino geldings and spayed mares may be considered for registration with excessive white provided the white and the pink skin underlying the white markings does not extend beyond the lines described as follows: please see site for description!

C. Non-Breeding Stock. (ie geldings, spayed mares and those mares whose registration certificates are designated as 'non-breeding'). Additional latitude in the extent of white markings with underlying light skin, as to allow registration as non-breeding stock, shall be given to geldings, spayed mares and those mares whose registration certificates are designated as 'non-breeding,' the owner of the mare shall file with PHBA, the mare's genotype taken according to PHBA's procedures. These white markings with underlying light skin may extend beyond the lines described in rule 108(A), but not extending beyond: please see site for description.

D. Non-breeding Stock, being spayed mares, or mares with such limitation designated on its registration certificate, shall not be eligible for breeding purposes or otherwise produce foals eligible for registration, nor compete, or otherwise participate in halter classes of PHBA-approved shows, but may compete in performance events for which they are otherwise eligible.

E. When a horse is inspected for possible excessive white markings, the owner will pay PHBA an inspection fee prior to the inspection.

109. Misrepresentation of White Markings. The registration of any horse having white markings beyond the prescribed lines shall be subject to cancellation if the registration application fails to indicate, or misrepresents, the horse's actual markings.

   
What are the IBHA registration requirements of eligible horses?

The Buckskin Horse Registration Requirements

Once eligibility for color is established, an inspector must approve the horse before it can apply for registration. The Ideal type of horse is the Western Stock quarter horse type of body and build.

   
Three Distinctions of the DWB in Europe?

The Dutch Warmblood Horse

Today in Holland there are three distinct types of horses bred.

The most numerous and internationally important is the "Rijpaardtype" or Riding Horse Type a distinctly modern, elegant sport horse bred for athleticism, good character and soundness. International jumpers, dressage horses, combined driving, and vaulting horses are selected from this category.

   
what is the general description of an Oldenburg horse?

The Oldenburg

Despite its size, the well-bred, modern Oldenburg is a compact horse with relatively short legs; short cannons; powerful hindquarters; a long, strong neck inherited from its days as a carriage horse; a deep chest; and large hooves able to bear the weight of such a large animal. Oldenburgs are found in a variety of colors, but are usually black, brown or gray. Their appearance is accentuated by kind eyes that mirror the horse's calm tractable nature.

   
where did the Clydesdale originate?

The Clydesdale Horse - Origin

The Clydesdale breed originated in the Clyde Valley, Lanarkshire, Scotland.

   
how did the fame of the Belgian Horse spread?

The Belgian Horse - Spreading Across Europe

Stallions from Belgium were exported to many other parts of Europe as the need to produce larger animals of draft type for industrial and farm use was recognized. There was no need to import into Belgium for she was the "Mother Lode." It remained only for this ancestral home of the "great horse," by whatever name, to refine and fix the type of the genetic material she already had at hand.

The government of Belgium played a very energetic role in doing just that. A system of district shows culminating in the great national show in Brussels, which served as an international showcase for the breed, was established. The prizes were generous. Inspection committees for stallions standing for public service were established.

   
What is the history of the Friesian Horse?

The Friesian Horse-history

Before the Reformation, he was selectively bred in monasteries to be a versatile, all-around horse for the people of his native Friesland. He flourished in his small corner of the world for centuries but in the 20th century he almost became extinct due to world wars and mechanization. Fortunately, he was 're-discovered' before he disappeared entirely and today this distinctive horse enjoys a celebrity unrivaled by other breeds. The Friesian is truly a horse from distant past who has enormous appeal in modern times.

   
How did the Clydesdale Breed start?

The Clydesdale Horse - Breed Crossing

The Clydesdale breed originated in the mid-eighteenth century, when the Sixth Duke of Hamilton (1742 - 1758) imported a flemish stallion (male horse) from Flanders (a region of Northern Europe currently encompassed by France, Belgium, and the Netherlands). It's from this stallion mating with a work horse mare that the Clydesdale breed developed.

Following contributions from Flemish and Frisian stallions, the definitive characteristics of the breed were fixed at the beginning of the eighteenth century.

   
how much influence were other breeds in the Canadian Horse?

The Canadian Horse in Canada

For hundreds of years, the French horses bred with little influence from outside breeds. They eventually developed into their own distinct breed - the Canadian Horse or Cheval Canadien.

   
who was responsible for the start of the Oldenburg?

The Oldenburg

Graf Johann XVI von Oldenburg (1573 - 1603) started the many breeding farms in his region for the purpose of producing war horses, which were given as gifts to important rulers and those who had distinguished themselves as heroes in war. He used Turkish, Neopolitan, Andalusians, and elegant Danish stallions to improve his Friesian horses, described as being large and strong.

   
how is a Hackney shown in Tandem?

The Hackney In Tandem

When Hackney horses are worked in tandem, the wheelers (horses closest to the wagon), should be slightly larger than the leaders. The leaders should be brighter and flashier with higher motion. The harnesses of the wheelers should be tighter than those of the leaders, showing that they are pulling the larger portion of the load. The leaders' job is to present a bright flashy appearance.

   
where is the POA Registry today in events & numbers?

POA, Registry/Organization Today

From the original national POA Club came state clubs, state shows, regional shows and sales, a world class international show and sale and a world championship show. The registry went from Black Hand POA #1 in 1954 to 1996's registry of over 40,000.

   
what is the white sclera of the Appaloosa?

Appaloosa-Markings Around The Eyes

White Sclera

The sclera is the area of the eye which encircles the iris - the colored or pigmented portion. The white of the human eye is an example. All horses have sclera but the Appaloosa's is white and usually more readily visible than other breeds. All horses can show white around the eye if it is rolled back, up or down or if the eyelid is lifted. Readily visible white sclera is a distinctive Appaloosa characteristic provided it is not in combination with a large white face marking, such as a bald face.

   
does the Shire Horse have feathers?

The Shire Horse - Feathers

Feathers: Fine, straight and silky.

   
where are the Clydesdale Horse Breeding farms?

The Clydesdale Horse - American Breeding Farms

One of two breeding farms for the Anheuser-Busch Clydesdales is Grant's Farm, located in south St. Louis, Missouri. Approximately 15 to 20 foals (a horse under six months of age) are born there each year. Grant's Farm is the former home of Ulysses S. Grant, Civil War commander and the eighteenth president of the United States.

The second breeding farm is located near Romoland, California, about 60 miles southeast of Los Angeles. Approximately 15 to 20 foals are born there each year.

For the remainder of this article, go to the home site of the Anheuser-Busch Clydesdales at: www.abclydesdales.com

   
how is a hackney team judged?

Showing The Hackney in Teams

Both Hackney horses and ponies are sometimes shown in teams. These can be pairs side by side, two in tandem or four in a team. Whenever they are shown together, horses in a team should be as similar in appearance and style of motion as is possible.

   
is the Hackney suitable for disciplines other than driving?

The Hackney Horse/Pony Definition

The name "Hackney" comes from the French word Hacquenee derived from the Latin word for horse, equus. The term, brought to England by the Normans in the 11th century, was fully assimilated into the English language by 1303. At that time the term meant a riding horse, as distinguished from the heavier warhorse, and later evolved to the abbreviated "Hack" meaning a riding horse or a hired carriage. The modern Hackney breed took only its name from Medieval times as it is rarely ridden because its conformation and extreme motion make it rough to ride. When crossed with modern Thoroughbreds, however, Hackneys have produced some excellent jumpers.

   
What is the definition of a Dutch Warmblood?

The Warmblood

The Dutch Warmblood is a "warmblood sport horse" breed. Warmblood simply distinguishes this type of horse from the "cold bloods" (draft horses) and the "hot bloods" (Thoroughbreds and Arabs).

   
Does any registries change as of 2001?

Registry of Lipizzan Horses 01/2001

As of January 1, 2001 the Lipizzan Registry is changing the regulations to read: only horses that are foaled in LIPICA and branded/registered in SLOVENIA will be registered as LIPIZZAN HORSES. The Lipizzan Horse was founded in 1580 in LIPICA and have been maintained in Vienna. Austria is appealing the decree.

   
how did the POA begin?

The Beginnings of the POA

The foundation stallion of the Pony of the Americas (POA ) breed is Black Hand, also known as Black Hand #1 because he became the first POA registered. Black Hand’s sire was a Shetland pony and his dam was a cross between and Arabian and a Quarter Horse. The mating was accidental. The mare’s owner sold her while she was pregnant to Shetland pony breeder and attorney Les Boomhower of Iowa.

Black Hand was named for a distinctive hand-like formation of spots on his hip. The foal grew to resemble a small Appaloosa horse rather than a blocky pony. Black Hand also had a good temperament and was very athletic. He became in demand around Iowa as a sire for older children’s ponies. Boomhower started the Pony of the Americas Club in 1954 with fellow Shetland pony breeders.

Other breeds were added to the mix to create a breed of Black Hands. These breeds included Arabians, small Quarter Horses, Welsh ponies, small but horse-like Indian ponies bred by Native American tribes and mustangs. One mustang in particular who influenced the breed was Dragon or Dragon #103, caught leading a band of mustangs in Mexico in 1957. Despite being a fully mature wild stallion, he eventually was trained to ride and compete with children on his back.

   
what colors are acceptable and unacceptable in the Shire?

The Shire - Colors

Color: Black, brown, bay, grey or chestnut/sorrel (rare) are the preferred colors. Excessive white markings and roaning are undesirable.

   
what are the bloodlines of the Canadian Horse?

The Canadian Horse Original Bloodlines

This hardy breed descended from horses originally sent to the “New World” by King Louis XIV of France in the late 1600's. These Norman and Breton horses were felt to be of Arab, Andalusian and Barb ancestry – traits of which can still be recognized in the Canadian Horse today.

   
how are the progeny of Swedish Warmbloods selected for registry?

Swedish Warmbloods Progeny Selection

Offspring of approved breeding horses are inspected and graded. Status of horses in the stud book are raised according to their progeny. Stallions are judged by the performance of their offspring, particularly in international classes.

   
How did the Hackney Horse/Pony come to America?

The Hackney Horse/Pony Into America

The seas were being crossed regularly during the 1800s, by ships bearing both Hackney horses and the smaller ponies which certain breeders were selectively encouraging.

Vast improvement in British roadways in the mid-1800s also contributed to the development of the swift trotting horse. These roads did not always demand dray animals which could tug carts from deep ruts. Now, a man could say 'Trot On' and really go! These new and better roads fairly invited competition between farmers, both riding and driving swift trotting horses on the to market.

The breeding of Hackneys in England was formalized by the founding of the Hackney Stud Book Society in 1883.

This was the Golden Age of Driving, when automobiles were not even a dream. The Hackney was the ultimate driving machine of the 1880s both in America and in Britain. The first Hackney pony imported to America was 239 Stella, brought to Philadelphia by Mr. A. J. Cossatt in 1878.

In 1891 Mr. Cossatt and other Hackney enthusiasts founded the American Hackney Horse Society, an organization and registry which thrives today. From 1890 until the Depression, wealthy Americans brought boatload after boatload of horses and ponies of the most noted strains.

   
what are the Breed Characteristics of the Holsteiner?

The Holsteiner

Traditionally, the Holsteiner has been bay with a preference for no or few white markings. He is well-balanced, maturing between 16 and 17 hands with round, generous strides and a natural, elastic movement. A lovely head with large, kind eyes is carried on a beautifully arched neck, rising upward out of his withers, producing elegance, lightness and self-carriage. His temperament is relaxed and willing, with good character and an eagerness for work.

   
what is the judging based on for a Hackney?

The Hackney Horse/Pony Judging

Harness ponies are judged on the same criteria as harness horses -- high action in both front and back legs, snappy motion, proud, disciplined carriage of the head and tail and alertness displayed in the ears and eyes.

   
how does the USA registry compare & unite with the European?

USA Registry of Hanoverians

The American Hanoverian Society was incorporated in 1978 for the purpose of gathering the Hanoverians in North America in a registry, to preserve and promote the breed. Since then it has grown rapidly in membership, horse registration, and approved stallions.

While the AHS is an independent organization with its own constitution and bylaws, it maintains a close relationship with the German Hanoverian Breeders' Society (the “Verband hannoverscher Warmblutzuechter”), regarding inspection, registration and licensing procedures and educational activities.

   
when did the Clydesdale Horse come to America?

The Clydesdale Horse - Comes To America

Clydesdales were introduced to the United States Prior to the Civil War.

   
Are the hindquarters of the Shire strong?

The Shire Horse - Hindquarters

Hindquarters: Long and sweeping, wide and full of muscle; well let down toward the thighs.

   
Would a Hackney be suited to saddleseat?

The Hackney Horse

For more about this breed that is an excellent candidate for the Saddleseat Competitions, go to the Sub Section Titled Ponies/Miniatures in the Breeds of Horses Category.

   
success of the DWB Breeding & Region

The Dutch Warmblood Horse

The success of the Dutch horse is no accident. The same characteristics and approach, which have made The Netherlands preeminent in agriculture and commerce, have been applied to their goal to breed the best sport horse in the world.

The Dutch breeding program and rigorous selection procedures coordinate to realize this goal. The Dutch horse is selectively bred for good conformation, good gaits, excellent character, performance ability, and soundness.

   
what are the vehicles that you show a Hackney in?

The Hackney Vehicles To Show

When shown, the ponies are harnessed in sleek patent leather harnesses, decorated with brass or chrome hardware. They are hitched to a four-wheeled buggy called a "viceroy". This delicate-looking little carriage has a single seat for the driver with a small pad in back, a remnant of the footman's seat on larger carriages. They are also shown in a two wheeled cart.

   
What is a hackney pony?

Hackney Horse or Pony

The origins of the Hackney as we know it began in Norfolk, England where the horses called Norfolk Trotters had been selectively bred for elegant style and speed. Seeking to improve on both counts, breeders mated the Norfolk mares to grandsons of the foundation sires of the Thoroughbred. The first Hackney as we know the breed today is said to be The Shale's Horse, foaled in 1760. During the next 50 years, the Hackney was developed as a special breed.

By the Society's rules, conformation is giving greater importance than action in hand classes with an emphasis on quality. Quality may be defined as well-balanced physique with clean limbs; it is also expressed in a generous and alert demeanor which may be emphasized by good presentation.

The head should have a straight or slightly convex profile with clear, intelligent eyes set fairly wide apart; the ears should be well-formed and active.
When standing, the Hackney should have its head and neck raised, expressing the alert and active character of the breed.

The neck should be of moderate length, with more or less crest according to age and sex. The poll should be of good length. The throat should be fine so that there is no restriction of the air passages when bridling. The neck should be well attached to reasonably high withers set on powerful, obliquely sloping shoulders.

The body should be of adequate length with well-sprung ribs and of a good depth. A fairly long back is not objectionable in a mare. The upper line of the croup from the loins to the tail should form a convex curve with the tail well carried. Viewed from the front, the chest should be of ample but not excessive width, while from the rear the quarters and gaskins must be well muscled.

The legs should have plenty of clean, flat bone with the tendons clearly defined. Excessive fineness of bone, especially any tendency to be "tied in below the knee," is objectionable in the Hackney. The forelegs should be attached well forward, beneath the point of the shoulder. The forearms should be long and well developed while the cannon bones should be short and clean with plenty of good, flat bone. The pasterns should be sufficiently long and set at the proper oblique angle to provide a light and springy step. From the side the forelegs should not show any tendency to be "back or over at the knees." From the front they should be seen to be upright without any turning out or in of the pasterns. The hind legs should be of good length from the stifles to the hocks with short cannon bones. The hocks should be well formed and not be too upright when the horse is standing at ease.

The hooves should be well rounded, in front forming an angle of about 50 degrees with the ground at the toe. The hind hooves will form a rather more upright angle. The hooves should be open at the heels and have concave soles.

When shown in hand, a true, four-beat walk is expected. This should be straight with the forelegs well extended and the hocks flexed in a stride that has the hind feet overstriding the imprints made by the forefeet. To achieve this in most cases it is necessary to give freedom of movement to the horse's head which, in the case of entries, may mean letting out the side reins. The trot in hand should show well rounded front action, taking a stride of good length with the hocks flexed and following through. Dishing or crossing of the forelegs should be penalised. Straight action is most important in breeding classes as defects in this regard can be hereditary.

The Hackney Horse Movement In Harness
In show harness classes, high action is of greater importance. The front action should be lofty and well rounded with no tendency to brush the elbows. It must also be straight and true and the front feet must be placed squarely on the ground. Dropping on the heels is faulty. The hind legs should be well flexed and brought forward under the body with a piston like action. Dwelling of the hocks in a flexed position is undesirable. Excessive speed at the trot is not wanted, the aim being to give a well-balanced performance presenting a pleasing picture of poise and elegance.
In road classes, the ponies are shown both ways of the ring to a jog trot and road gait and the second, or counter-clockwise, way of the ring at speed. They are all trotting gaits performed at different speeds. The ponies are judged on motion retained at high speed, speed, quality and manners.

   
is the Hackney shown or used in Carriages?

The Hackney In Carriage

The carriages pulled by teams of Hackney horses are usually antique vehicles such as stagecoaches or other large passenger vehicles. Often the driver and attendants wear period attire, complete with lap covers to protect clothes. Hackney ponies are often shown pulling miniature versions of these same vehicles.

   
what is the POA Organization Motto?

POA, The Motto

The POA motto is "Try hard, win humbly, lose gracefully and, if you must ... protest with dignity."

   
how did the Hackney Pony come about?

The Hackney Horse Into A Pony

The Hackney pony was developed from the Hackney horse by crossing with the small, spirited Welsh Ponies. The first well-known pony-type Hackney was Sir George, foaled in 1866. Sir George had strong bloodlines from the Norfolk Trotters. In England in 1872, the trend began to breed specifically for a pony type, but today the British breeders are not as particular about the size of the horses as are Americans, the priority being that the horse have the performance.

   
current Oldenburg Breeding Regulations?

The Oldenburg

The other two events of major import were the foundation of the Oldenburg studbook; the enactment of hip and neck branding for the identification of approved, registered horses (1861); and the founding of two breeding societies, under the breeding law of April 9, 1897.

   
What is the color definition of a Paint Horse?

Definition of Paint Markings

Each Paint Horse has a particular combination of white and any color of the equine spectrum: black, bay, brown, chestnut, dun, grullo, sorrel, palomino, buckskin, gray or roan.

Markings can be any shape or size, and located virtually anywhere on the Paint's body.

Although Paints come in a variety of colors with different markings, there are only three specific coat patterns: overo, tobiano and tovero.

   
where was the origin of the Cleveland Bay and when?

The Cleveland Bay

North Yorkshire, England, is famous as the cradle of two of the worlds leading breeds of horses, the Thoroughbred and the Cleveland Bay. In its fertile Vale of Bedale, from about 1660 to 1740, by breeding desert bred imported Arabian stallions to native British race mares, the D'arcys of Sedbury, the Darleys of Aldby, and other breeders evolved the race horse now known as the Thoroughbred.

   
how many Oldenburgs are in Germany?

The Oldenburg

Of all the horses registered with the German Equestrian Federation in 1987, approximately 8 percent were Oldenburgs. The Oldenburg registry represents one of the top lines in Germany. The percentages are somewhat skewed as to Oldenburgs, due to the fact that the region in which these horses are bred is a small one and therefore produces fewer absolute quantities of horses than other registries. While representing the smallest breeding area in Germany, Oldenburg is nevertheless one of the most important.

   
what are the requirements to be classified as an Appaloosa Horse?

The Appaloosa Horse

Although Appaloosas are most commonly recognized by their colorful coat patterns, they also have other distinctive characteristics. The four identifiable characteristics are: coat pattern, mottled skin, white sclera, and striped hooves. In order to receive regular registration, a horse must have a recognizable coat pattern or mottled skin and one other characteristic. Horses which receive regular registration are issued numbers (no letters precede the number.) Those not displaying a coat pattern or mottled skin and one other characteristic will be classified as non-characteristic (N/C)) and their registration numbers preceded by the letter "N." Horses which complete the Certified Pedigree Option (CPO) program are issued numbers preceded by the letters "CN."

   
Can You Tell Me Something About Thoroughbreds?

Thoroughbred Horse

The Thoroughbred Horse began in England. First Racing Stock showed minimal speed, but plenty of endurance. These early mares were bred to Stallions of Barb, Arabian and Turkish descent in order to try and purposely increase the speed of the Thoroughbred. From 1689 until 1730, these 3 breeds were selectively line and in-bred to Thoroughbred Mares to improve upon the Thoroughbreds' speed. In 1733, a filly by Gondolphin Barb was imported to the USA, that was out of a British Thoroughbred mare.

The American Stud Book was first published in 1873, and was purchased by the Jockey Club in 1894, and continues to register American Thoroughbreds.

The Thoroughbred, being primarily a running/racing horse, is excellent in many other disciplines, such as Hunters, Jumpers, 3 Day Eventing, Dressage, Steeplechase, and Gymkhana games. The American Thoroughbred is notorious for their great heart & gameness in competition and keen scope and sense in negotiating obstacles and distances. The Thoroughbred is from 15.2 hands to 16.3 hands in height. Any color. Thoroughbreds have long sloping shoulders & muscles, short cannon bones, long forearms, great length from hip to hock. Generally considered a "hot" breed of horse, there are exceptions to every rule, however most Thoroughbreds do require a fairly experienced horseman.

Several famous Racing Thoroughbreds include the great Man 'O War, Secretariat (many of who's track records still have not been beaten), Northern Dancer, Cigar, Silver Charm.

The world famous Triple Crown racing series, held every year, starts with a mile and eighth at The Kentucky Derby in Kentucky, the first Saturday of May; followed by The Preakness Stakes running a mile in Maryland two weeks later; and finishes with The Belmont Stakes running a mile and a half in New York City three weeks later, usually the first Saturday of June.

   
how pure is the Cleveland Bay Bloodlines of today?

The Cleveland Bay History

In 1884, the Cleveland Bay Horse Society of Great Britain published the first volume of its Stud Book containing stallions and mares scrupulously selected for purity of blood, many of whose pedigrees traced back over a century. Since that date, the breed has been maintained free of outcrosses.

   
what is the progression of the development of the DWB?

The Dutch Warmblood

In the heyday of coaching in the 19th century, horses were imported to Europe from England - the Norfolk Trotter, the Yorkshire Coach, the Cleveland Bay, the Hackney - to be crossed on the native mares, becoming the ancestors of the moden sport horses of today's foremost horse-breeding countries and regions. As horse use grew to include more farm work, the breeding goal changed. The farm horses had to be all-round horses honest and tractable enough for plowing, yet stylish enough for carriage use and for riding. As farm mechanization progressed after World War II, the breeding goal was redirected toward producing pleasure sport horses. During this process of ‘modernization', there was again considerable foreign influence from France, England (Thoroughbreds), and Germany (Holsteiners and Trakehners).

   
Is The New 2001 Collector Coin Series Have Horses?

US Dept Of Treasury 2001 Coin Edition

The US Department of Treasurey is issuing for release shortly after New Year 2001, a quarter with 5 designs done by the Morgan Horse Association in Vermont.

   
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